Additional ways to identify the right screwdriver
are as follows:
1. If the screwdriver tends to stand up unassisted
when the point is put in the head of a vertical screw,
it is probably the proper one.
2. The outline of the end of a Reed and Prince
screwdriver is approximately a right angle, as seen in
3. In general, Reed and Prince screws are used
for airframe structural applications, while Phillips
screws are found most often in component assemblies.
Torq-Set machine screws (offset cross-slot drive)
have recently begun to appear in new equipment. The
main advantage of the newer type is that more torque
can be applied to its head while tightening or
loosening than to any other screw of comparable size
and material without damaging the head of the screw.
Torq-Set machine screws are similar in appearance
to the more familiar Phillips machine screws.
Since a Phillips driver could easily damage a
Torq-Set screwhead, making it difficult if not
impossible to remove the screw even if the proper tool
is later used, maintenance personnel should be alert to
the differences (fig. 1-49) and make sure the proper
tool is used.
An offset screwdriver (fig. 1-47) may be used
where there is not sufficient vertical space for a
standard or recessed screwdriver. Offset screwdrivers
are constructed with one blade forged in line and
another blade forged at right angles to the shank
handle. Both blades are bent 90 degrees to the shank
handle. By alternating ends, most screws can be
seated or loosened even when the swinging space is
very restricted. Offset screwdrivers are made for both
standard and recessed-head screws.
For fast, easy work, the ratchet screwdriver (fig.
1-47), is extremely convenient, as it can be used
one-handed and does not require the bit to be lifted
out of the slot after each turn. It may be fitted with
either a standard-type bit or a special bit for recessed
heads. The ratchet screwdriver is most commonly
used by the woodworker for driving screws in soft
Screwdrivers, like any other hand tool, are
dangerous when not used properly. Therefore, the
following safety precautions should always be
Never use a screwdriver to check an electrical
Never try to turn a screwdriver with a pair of
Do not hold work in your hand while using a
screwdriver if the point slips, it can cause a bad cut.
Hold the work in a vise, with a clamp, or on a solid
surface. If that is impossible, you will always be safe
if you follow this rule: NEVER GET ANY PART OF
YOUR BODY IN FRONT OF THE SCREWDRIVER
BLADE TIP. That is a good safety rule for any sharp
or pointed tool.
Pliers are made in many styles and sizes and are
used to perform many different operations. Pliers are
used for cutting purposes, as well as holding and
gripping small articles in situations where it may be
inconvenient or impossible to use hands. Figure 1-51
shows several different kinds.
The combination pliers are handy for holding or
bending flat or round stock. The long-nosed pliers are
less rugged, and break easily if you use them on
Long-nosed pliers, commonly called
needle-nose pliers, are especially useful for holding
small objects in tight places and for making delicate
adjustments. The round-nosed kind are handy when
you need to crimp sheet metal or form a loop in a
wire. The diagonal cutting pliers, commonly called
"diagonals" or dikes, are designed for cutting wire
and cotter pins close to a flat surface and are
especially useful in the electronic and electrical fields.
The duckbill pliers are used extensively in aviation