Quantcast SPECIFIC GRAVITY

Share on Google+Share on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on TwitterShare on DiggShare on Stumble Upon
Custom Search
 
  
SPECIFIC GRAVITY The specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a given volume of a fuel to the weight of an equal volume of distilled water. Normally, the gravity of petroleum products is converted to degrees API, according to the API (American Petroleum Institute) scale. All gravity determinations are correlated with a specific tempera- ture of 60°F by use of ASTM Standard D1250-80. The specific gravity of petroleum products must be determined to correct the volume at different tempera- tures when gauging the liquid content of storage tanks, tankers, and barges. The specific gravity of JP-5 is also used to select the proper discharge ring on the centrif- ugal purifier. A change of the specific gravity of a fuel may indicate a change of composition caused by the mixing of different fuels, or even mixing different grades of the same fuel. VISCOSITY Viscosity is the measure of a liquid’s resistance to flow. The significance of viscosity depends on the intended use of the product. For application and per- formance, proper viscosity is highly important since specified minimum and maximum flow rates of flow are required for all fuels and lubricating oils. In fuel, viscosity determination serves as an index of how it will flow to the burners, the extent to which it will be atomized, and the temperatures at which the fuel must be maintained to be properly atomized. SOLVENCY OF FUELS All petroleum fuels have the characteristic of being able to dissolve some materials. They can dissolve common lubricants, such as oils and greases in pumps, valves, packing, and other equipment. This charac- teristic requires the use of special lubricants for gasoline services. Gasolines also cause serious deterioration of all rubber materials except those synthetic types designed especially for gasoline service. It is very important, therefore, that only hose specially made and designated for gasoline be used in this service. This also applies to packing, gaskets, and other materials that must be used in gasoline systems. Like gasoline, jet engine fuels have certain solvent properties that dissolve greases and cause deteriora- tion of some rubber materials. Therefore, only spe- cially designated greases and synthetic materials should be used for jet engine fuel service. Another important solvent property of jet engine fuels is their ability to dissolve asphalt used for aircraft runways and pavements. Jet engine fuels seriously damage asphalt pavements, and even small spills of this fuel on asphalt pavement should be avoided. FREEZING POINTS OF FUELS The freezing point of a fuel is the temperature at which solid particles begin to form in the fuel. These particles are waxy crystals normally held in solution in the fuel. These particles can readily block the filters in an aircraft fuel system. The fuel almost always becomes cloudy before the solid particles form. This cloud is due to the presence of dissolved water in the fuel coming out of the solution and freezing. The freezing point of JP-5 is – 51°F. The fuels used by other NATO countries and by commercial users vary widely. FLASH POINTS OF FUELS The flash point of a fuel is the lowest temperature at which the fuel vaporizes enough to form a combus- tible vapor. These temperatures vary according to the fuel in question. The flash point of a fuel is an index of the fuel’s potential safety when being handled or when in stor- age. JP-5 must have a flash point of at least 140°F to have the high safety factor required for storage aboard an aircraft carrier in unprotected tanks. F-40 (JP-4) and F-34 (JP-8) fuels flash at any normal temperature and are in danger of ignition any time they contact a hot surface. Therefore, these fuels must be handled with caution from a safety standpoint. HEALTH HAZARDS OF AVIATION FUELS Most people are aware of the explosive and fire potential of aviation fuels. Furthermore, there is a danger to the health of the individual who must work where hydrocarbon vapors are present. Prolonged in- halation of hydrocarbon vapors can cause dizziness, intoxication, nausea, and death. Consequently, ap- proved safety procedures that minimize the dangers to the health of fuel-handling personnel must be fol- lowed meticulously. Gasoline The concentration of gasoline vapors that can be tolerated by man is far below that required to produce combustible or explosive mixtures with air. Even one- tenth of the amount necessary to support combustion or to form an explosive mixture is harmful if inhaled for more than a short time, causing dizziness, nausea, and 3-3



Aviation News
Airbus launches new VIP widebody cabin-concept
Introduces a new way to greater capacity, comfort and capability...
airbus.com
Airbus to adjust A330 production rate to nine a month
Transition towards A330neo Share this Read more +...
airbus.com
US Navy’s E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Warfighter Achieves IOC
E-2D Advanced Hawkeye aircraft. Photo: US Navy [Avionics Today 10-17-2014]...
aviationtoday.com
DOD Looks to Performance-Based Logistics to Cut Costs
The Pentagon, headquarters of the United States Department of Defense....
aviationtoday.com
RJAF Acquires Robinson R44 Fleet
The Royal Jordanian Air Force (RJAF) has acquired eight Robinson...
aviationtoday.com
Qatar Airways’ first A350 XWB completes its maiden flight
First customer aircraft takes to the sky Share this Read...
airbus.com
Airbus ACJ319 highlights trend to larger cabins at NBAA
Giving customers more comfort and space in the sky Share...
airbus.com
Pratt & Whitney Deliver Seventh Lot of Propulsion Engines to DOD, Remedy Former Engine Mishaps
F-35 Joint Strike Fighter for which Pratt & Whitney supply...
aviationtoday.com
EASA certifies A350 XWB for up to 370 minute ETOPS
First new airliner ever to be approved before EIS for...
airbus.com
Airbus opens its doors to schoolgirls: “Elles du Futur - Girls for the Future of Aeronautics”
Discovering aeronautical professions Share this Read more +...
airbus.com
IndiGo signs MoU for 250 A320neo aircraft
Important endorsement for Airbus’ leading single aisle aircraft Family Share...
airbus.com
India Nears Deals to Purchase New Helicopters from Boeing
Boeing AH-64. Photo by Ernie Stephens Reuters is reporting that...
aviationtoday.com
US Navy Grants Flight Clearance to SHIELD Aviation’s ARES UAS
ARES Block C Unmanned Aerial System. Photo: PRNewsFoto/SHIELD Aviation [Avionics...
aviationtoday.com
Unmanned Vs. Manned: How Civil UAS is Shaping Up in Europe
[Avionics Today 10-15-2014] The European Commission, like many government agencies...
aviationtoday.com
MDA to Provide Airbus with Communication Subsystems
Airbus headquarters in Toulouse, France. Photo: Airbus [Avionics Today 10-15-2014]...
aviationtoday.com
MUOS-Manpack PRC-155 Radio Demonstrates Secure Communications for US Air Force
MUOS Manpack PRC-155 radio. Photo: General Dynamics C4 Systems [Avionics...
aviationtoday.com
Fighting for the Warfighter: Navy Looks to Drive NextGen Technology
Rear Adm. Mike Moran, Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division...
aviationtoday.com
Rockwell Collins and Elbit Systems of America Introduce the Digital EyePiece NVCD for JHMCS
The JHMCS helmet for which the Elbit Systems digital eyepiece...
aviationtoday.com
Lockheed Martin Delivers Digital Air Ground Integration Range to US Army
Lockheed Martin’s Digital Range Training System (DRTS) which encompasses  the...
aviationtoday.com
Boeing Completes Round of Testing for Military and Commercial Aircraft Satellite Antenna
Boeing engineers Stephanie Mount and Chuck Renneberg examine the low-profile...
aviationtoday.com


Privacy Statement - Copyright Information. - Contact Us

comments powered by Disqus

Integrated Publishing, Inc.
9438 US Hwy 19N #311 Port Richey, FL 34668

Phone For Parts Inquiries: (727) 755-3260
Google +