Quantcast SPECIFIC GRAVITY

Share on Google+Share on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on TwitterShare on DiggShare on Stumble Upon
Custom Search
 
  
SPECIFIC GRAVITY The specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a given volume of a fuel to the weight of an equal volume of distilled water. Normally, the gravity of petroleum products is converted to degrees API, according to the API (American Petroleum Institute) scale. All gravity determinations are correlated with a specific tempera- ture of 60°F by use of ASTM Standard D1250-80. The specific gravity of petroleum products must be determined to correct the volume at different tempera- tures when gauging the liquid content of storage tanks, tankers, and barges. The specific gravity of JP-5 is also used to select the proper discharge ring on the centrif- ugal purifier. A change of the specific gravity of a fuel may indicate a change of composition caused by the mixing of different fuels, or even mixing different grades of the same fuel. VISCOSITY Viscosity is the measure of a liquid’s resistance to flow. The significance of viscosity depends on the intended use of the product. For application and per- formance, proper viscosity is highly important since specified minimum and maximum flow rates of flow are required for all fuels and lubricating oils. In fuel, viscosity determination serves as an index of how it will flow to the burners, the extent to which it will be atomized, and the temperatures at which the fuel must be maintained to be properly atomized. SOLVENCY OF FUELS All petroleum fuels have the characteristic of being able to dissolve some materials. They can dissolve common lubricants, such as oils and greases in pumps, valves, packing, and other equipment. This charac- teristic requires the use of special lubricants for gasoline services. Gasolines also cause serious deterioration of all rubber materials except those synthetic types designed especially for gasoline service. It is very important, therefore, that only hose specially made and designated for gasoline be used in this service. This also applies to packing, gaskets, and other materials that must be used in gasoline systems. Like gasoline, jet engine fuels have certain solvent properties that dissolve greases and cause deteriora- tion of some rubber materials. Therefore, only spe- cially designated greases and synthetic materials should be used for jet engine fuel service. Another important solvent property of jet engine fuels is their ability to dissolve asphalt used for aircraft runways and pavements. Jet engine fuels seriously damage asphalt pavements, and even small spills of this fuel on asphalt pavement should be avoided. FREEZING POINTS OF FUELS The freezing point of a fuel is the temperature at which solid particles begin to form in the fuel. These particles are waxy crystals normally held in solution in the fuel. These particles can readily block the filters in an aircraft fuel system. The fuel almost always becomes cloudy before the solid particles form. This cloud is due to the presence of dissolved water in the fuel coming out of the solution and freezing. The freezing point of JP-5 is – 51°F. The fuels used by other NATO countries and by commercial users vary widely. FLASH POINTS OF FUELS The flash point of a fuel is the lowest temperature at which the fuel vaporizes enough to form a combus- tible vapor. These temperatures vary according to the fuel in question. The flash point of a fuel is an index of the fuel’s potential safety when being handled or when in stor- age. JP-5 must have a flash point of at least 140°F to have the high safety factor required for storage aboard an aircraft carrier in unprotected tanks. F-40 (JP-4) and F-34 (JP-8) fuels flash at any normal temperature and are in danger of ignition any time they contact a hot surface. Therefore, these fuels must be handled with caution from a safety standpoint. HEALTH HAZARDS OF AVIATION FUELS Most people are aware of the explosive and fire potential of aviation fuels. Furthermore, there is a danger to the health of the individual who must work where hydrocarbon vapors are present. Prolonged in- halation of hydrocarbon vapors can cause dizziness, intoxication, nausea, and death. Consequently, ap- proved safety procedures that minimize the dangers to the health of fuel-handling personnel must be fol- lowed meticulously. Gasoline The concentration of gasoline vapors that can be tolerated by man is far below that required to produce combustible or explosive mixtures with air. Even one- tenth of the amount necessary to support combustion or to form an explosive mixture is harmful if inhaled for more than a short time, causing dizziness, nausea, and 3-3



Aviation News
How NextGen is Getting Fans to the Super Bowl
January 29Football fans flying to Phoenix for the Super Bowl...
faa.gov
French Prime Minister visits Airbus Final Assembly Line in Tianjin
Over 200 Airbus A320 Family aircraft assembled so far Share...
airbus.com
Lockheed Martin Reports Strong 2014 for Aeronautics
[Avionics Today 01-29-2015] Lockheed Martin reported a strong year in...
aviationtoday.com
A new attraction in Toulouse for aviation enthusiasts: The Aeroscopia museum opens
Aviation’s past, present and future have come together in southwestern...
airbus.com
Unmanned Aircraft and NFL Football Don't Mix
January 28Many familiar sounds are associated with the Super Bowl:...
faa.gov
Turbomeca's Arriel 2N Turboshaft Receives EASA Certification
Turbomeca has received EASA type-certification for its Ariel 2N turboshaft...
aviationtoday.com
The Long Haul: Aurora’s Orion UAS Claims New Endurance Record with 80-hour flight
The Orion UAS in flight. Photo: Aurora Flight Sciences [Avionics...
aviationtoday.com
RNLAF Selects Terma MASE Pod Solution for NH-90s
The Royal Netherlands Air Force (RNLAF) has contracted Terma, a...
aviationtoday.com
Australian Military’s EC135 T2+ Completes First Flight
The first Airbus EC135 T2+ helicopter in a planned fleet...
aviationtoday.com
Raytheon Absorbs Sensintel, Ups UAS Portfolio
Photo: Raytheon [Avionics Today 01-26-2015] Raytheon has acquired the privately...
aviationtoday.com
Exelis Wins Redesign Contract for US Navy’s ALQ-99 Tactical Jammer
U.S. Navy ALQ-99 aircraft. Photo: U.S. Navy by Mass Communication...
aviationtoday.com
Aircraft Asset Assessment B737-800
Market Presence. In the context of re-engining from both manufacturers,...
aviationtoday.com
FAA to Airlines: E-cigs in Checked Bags are Fire Risk
January 23As the popularity of e-cigarettes increases, the FAA wants...
faa.gov
FAA to Issue New Guidance on Sleep Apnea
January 23The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) continually works with the...
faa.gov
FAA Grants Two More UAS Exemptions
January 23-The Federal Aviation Administration continues to allow expanded commercial...
faa.gov
F/A-18 Super Hornet Infrared Search and Track System Approved for Production
IRST21, shown on the F/A-18E/F. Photo: Lockheed Martin   [Avionics...
aviationtoday.com
Exelis Inks Contract with General Atomics for MQ-9 UAS Ejector Rack
MQ-9 UAS. Photo: U.S. Air Force [Avionics Today 01-22-2015] Exelis...
aviationtoday.com
Boeing Ready to Show Off New Maritime Surveillance Aircraft
Boeing Maritime Surveillance Aircraft (MSA) test flight take off. Photo:...
aviationtoday.com
Lockheed Martin Delivers eCASS System to Troubleshoot U.S. Navy Aircraft
Marine using eCASS system. Photo: Lockheed Martin [Avionics Today 01-22-2015]...
aviationtoday.com
Japan Ministry of Defense Selects Northrop Grumman Aircraft to Up ISR
The Northrop Grumman RQ-4 Global Hawk. Photo: Northrop Grumman  [Avionics...
aviationtoday.com


Privacy Statement - Copyright Information. - Contact Us

comments powered by Disqus

Integrated Publishing, Inc.
9438 US Hwy 19N #311 Port Richey, FL 34668

Phone For Parts Inquiries: (727) 755-3260
Google +