6. chock the drive wheels.
FUELING WITH ENGINES
OPERATING (HOT REFUELING)
Hot refueling is performed only when operations
require rapid turnaround of aircraft, since hot refuel-
ing is significantly more dangerous and costly in
terms of fuel and manpower expenditures. Only pres-
sure hot refueling is performed.
A minimum of three ground crew personnel are
required for each hot-refueling operation. All person-
nel performing hot-refueling operations must be fully
trained and qualified. The usual duties of each of these
personnel are listed in the following paragraphs. Lo-
cal conditions or procedures, however, may require
that the duties be distributed differently among the
refueling personnel. If the station is configured such
that the deadman control operator does not have a
direct line-of-sight of both the aircraft pilot and the
nozzle operator, a fourth person (refueling coordina-
tor) is mandatory.
Personnel required for hot-refueling aircraft are
One station operator. The station operator must
be a fully qualified station operator from the local fuels
management organization. He or she must be positioned
to observe and monitor the entire hot-refueling opera-
tion. Duties include actual operation of the deadman
One nozzle operator. The nozzle operator must
be a squadron crewmember qualified for aircraft refu-
eling duties related to the specific aircraft type model
being refueled. Duties include the performance of nec-
essary aircraft refueling checks, such as the testing of
the precheck system and the vent and refueling panel
monitoring. The nozzle operator remains at the nozzle
throughout the refueling and leaves only to conduct
necessary vent checks.
One fire watch operator. This operator is nor-
mally TAD from one of the squadrons being refueled.
One refueling coordinator (plane captain). The
refueling coordinator will be a crewmember of the
squadron whose plane is being hot-refueled. The coor-
dinators primary duties include directing all move-
ments of the aircraft and coordinating hand signals
between fuel crew and the pilot. If the deadman control
operator has a direct line-of-sight to both the aircraft
pilot and the nozzle operator, the refueling coordina-
tors duties may be performed by either the station
operator or the nozzle operator.
The following equipment is the minimum re-
quired to conduct hot-refueling operations at shore
One fuel service unit, such as a direct refueling
station (pit) or mobile refueler. This unit must pos-
sess all of the required features and systems listed
earlier in this chapter for systems/facilities that
refuel aircraft (filter/separator, fuel monitor, and so
forth). The fuel service unit MUST have a com-
pletely operational deadman control, which MUST
cut off the flow of fuel to the aircraft immediately
(within 2 seconds) upon release. Leakage past this
valve with the deadman in the released position
cannot exceed 1 gallon in 5 minutes.
A pantograph or a minimum of 50 feet of refueling
hose. Pantograph fueling arms are preferred, be-
cause they are significantly less prone to rupture.
One bonding/grounding cable. Newer direct refuel-
ing stations (pits) are designed with the bond-
ing/grounding cable built into the pantograph and
along the hose. A separate bonding cable is there-
fore not needed with these systems. Both the truck
and aircraft must be grounded to the earth as well
as bonded to each other during hot-refueling opera-
tions with trucks.
Aircraft wheel chocks.
Sound-attenuating ear protectors, goggles, cranials,
and long-sleeved shirts and pants for each crew-
member. Personnel must NOT wear shoes that have
nails or other metal devices on the soles of their
shoes that might cause sparking.
A fire extinguisher at each relueling station. All
ground personnel involved in the hot-refueling op-
eration must be qualified in operating the fire-ex-
tinguishing equipment in use.
One emergency dry-break quick-disconnect. This
device is attached to the refueling hose near the
pantograph (on direct refueling stations) or attach-
ment point to the fuel servicing unit.
The following must be accomplished before air-
craft enter the hot-refueling area: