water in the tank. Should this occur, it will be neces-
sary to take a composite sample.
A composite sample is one in which samples are
taken from different levels in the tank and mixed to
form one sample. This type sample is more repre-
sentative than one taken from only top and bottom.
The same type sampler used to take the bottom sample
can be used to take a composite sample, simply by
attaching a string to the upper part of the disk guide
stem. The sampler can then be opened at various
levels by giving a smart jerk on the string. Tanks
found to be contaminated with entrained water must
be allowed more settling time before transferring.
RECEIVING JP-5 ABOARD
The first significant replenishing operation ever
performed at sea by the U.S. Navy was in 1899, when
the U.S. Navy collier Marcellus, while towing USS
Massachusetts, transferred coal to her. Since that
time, many methods and procedures have been tried
and abandoned. Those described in this section are the
typical procedures currently used in the fleet. The
actual rigging of the replenishing hose between ships
is the responsibility of the deck department and is not
discussed. The ABF is concerned with only the filling
connection hookup and the procedures for receiving
The receipt of aviation fuel aboard carriers is a
continuing problem in the fleet. This is due, in most
part, to the hazardous nature of the fuel involved, and
the ever increasing quantity required for our modern-
day aircraft. Other factors of equal importance that
also must be considered are the type and location of
the operation, the time allotted, and the large number
of personnel involved.
Time is an ever important aspect in any refueling
operation, but more so at sea. The entire Task Force is
scheduled to be replenished on a given date, and each
ship is allotted a maximum time for this purpose. Not
only are ships in constant jeopardy of a fire or colli-
sion during the replenishing operation, but they are
also easy targets in the event of an attack.
JP-5 fuel is comparatively safe (having a mini-
mum flashpoint of 140 F) when in its stored state. But,
this same fuel handled under high pressure is ex-
tremely dangerous when released into the atmosphere
in a fine mist or spray. Therefore, it should be treated
accordingly, and every precaution should be taken to
prevent the possibility of a fire or explosion when
pumping this fuel.
A replenishing operation from a tanker was chosen
to be described here since it covers all phases of any
The procedure for receiving JP-5 fuel aboard is
basically the same for all class carriers. This section
deals with the general procedures, equipment used, and
the criteria for the acceptance or rejection of JP-5 fuel
without reference to any particular ship.
The rate of fuel received is increased by using a
double-hose rig. Two hoses are suspended, one below
the other, from a single span wire. With this rig, two
kinds of fuel maybe received simultaneously at a single
station, or one kind may be pumped through both hoses.
Before receiving the tanker alongside, certain
preparations are necessary to safely and efficiently ex-
pedite the replenishing operation.
Deballasting and Stripping
Any ballasted JP-5 tanks should be deballasted and
stripped as soon as possible after the date and time of
the replenishing operation have been confirmed. This
requirement will be rare but must be covered in this
section. Obtain assistance from personnel in the engi-
neering department. They will align the main drainage
system as required and operate the main drainage educ-
The pump room or manifold operators align the
tank stripping system as follows:
1. Unlock and open the main drainage cutout valve
on the flood and drain manifold. (Relock manifold.)
2. Open the valves on the single-valved stripping
manifold to the tanks to be deballasted.
All tanks interconnected with one flood
and drain manifold can be deballasted simulta-
neously. Each eductor can deballast an average
of 1,000 gpm when supplied with fire main
pressure of about 150 psi.
Because of the tremendous suction taken by the
main drainage eductors, loss of suction on the tanks is
most likely to occur before the tanks are completely
emptied. When this occurs, realign the tank manifolds
to use the tank stripping system as follows:
1. Close all valves in the single-valved stripping