Open valves slowly to reduce or prevent any
splashing in tanks.
Conduct overwing refueling only as a last resort
and then only if of operational necessity or if aircraft
Hold hot-refueling operations to the absolute
minimum possible. Cold refueling operations are in-
herently safer and are preferred to hot refueling.
REDUCING AND CONT
ROLLING VAPOR GENERATION
To help prevent fires by reducing or controlling
vapor generation, activities must ensure the following
1. Do NOT handle aviation fuel in open contain-
2. Do NOT refuel, defuel, or drain aircraft or
conduct fuel-handling operations in a hangar or con-
fined area except for the removal of water and the
extraction of samples from aircraft low-point drains.
This does not apply to structures specifically designed
for these operations.
3. Keep all fuel containers, such as aircraft fuel
tanks or filters, closed except when necessary to open
for actual operation or maintenance.
4. Avoid spilling fuel during fuel-handling op-
5. Take immediate action to clean up any spill
6. Properly dispose of oily waste or rags immedi-
ately after using.
7. Never drive or move a refueler or defueler with
a leak in the tank, piping, or other equipment.
8. Report all leaks in any portion of the fuel-han-
dling facilities to the FMO.
9. Treat empty or apparently empty carts or con-
tainers that formerly held aircraft fuels as though they
still contain fuel. These containers will still contain
vapors and are dangerous for many days after they have
10. Be aware that fuel vapors are heavier than air
and will collect in low places, such as pits, sumps, and
11. Never dispose of waste fuel in storm water or
sanitary sewer systems.
12. Never top load or splash fill tanks. (This does
not prohibit overwing refueling of aircraft that are
solely configured for this operation).
13. Keep all equipment and work areas neat, clean,
orderly, and in good mechanical condition.
14. Make sure fire-fighting equipment and extin-
guishers are in good condition and readily available.
15. Never use gasoline or jet engine fuel as a
Although the Air Stations Crash Crew has prime
responsibility for firefighting, all fuel-handling per-
sonnel should be aware of the basic principles in-
volved in extinguishing fires, as well as the equipment
used. They also should make certain that appropriate
fire-fighting equipment, in good condition, is readily
available whenever and wherever fuel-handling op-
erations are being conducted. All refueling personnel
will receive flightline fire-fighting training initially
and annually thereafter.
MINIMIZING HEALTH HAZARDS
Not only must aviation fuels be handled with
caution because of the obvious dangers associated
with possible fires and/or explosions, the materials
themselves present a danger to the health of fuel-han-
dling personnel. These dangers are equally important
as those of fires and explosions even though they are
not so well known.
To minimize health dangers, fuel-handling per-
sonnel must take the following actions:
Avoid entering enclosed areas where fuel vapors
Keep to an absolute minimum the amount of time
spent breathing fuel vapors. Good ventilation of work
spaces is essential.
Stay on the windward, or upwind, side of a spill if
you must remain in an area where a large spill has
Stay on the windward, or upwind, side when con-
ducting fuel-handling operations where the formation
of vapors is unavoidable, such as at a truck fill stand.
Stop the fuel-handling operation and move to a
fresh air location immediately if you feel dizzy or