Special washers such as ball-seat and socket
washers and taper pin washers are designed for
special applications. For example, the ball-seat
and socket washer is used where the bolt may be
installed at an angle to the surface. The washer
is also used where perfect alignment with the
surface is required, such as engine mount bolts.
Clamps used on aircraft engines prevent lines
from chafing on parts or against other lines. They
can also connect two lines or pieces of material,
Figure 2-20 shows examples of the Adell clamp
to maintain line clearance and prevent chafing.
The Adell clamp shown in figure 2-20 comes
in two different types. One is made of a rubber
or Teflon® cushion for low-range temperatures.
The second type has an asbestos cushion for high
When installing clamps, be sure to use the
proper size and material. Although clamps may
be reused, make sure reused clamps are in good
condition. Inspect support clamps for deteriora-
Figure 2-21.-Examples of (A) incorrect and (B) correct
tion of the cushion material, to prevent the metal
installation of hinged clamp.
Figure 2-20.-Securing lines using support clamps.