Movement about the lateral axis of the aircraft
(the axis that extends from wing to wing through
the center of gravity) is pitch. To control pitch
you use the elevators. If you desire a nose-up
attitude, apply an aft motion on the cockpit
control (stick or yoke). This causes the elevator
to move up, creating a downward force on the
horizontal stabilizer. Rotation about the lateral
axis then causes the nose to rise. Conversely, if
you want to lower the aircraft nose, apply a
forward motion on the cockpit control. This
causes the elevator to lower, creating an upward
force on the horizontal stabilizer. Rotation about
the lateral axis then causes the nose to lower.
Movement of the aircraft about the longi-
tudinal axis (from nose to tail) is known as bank
or roll. You control this motion by using the
ailerons. The ailerons mechanically connect to
each other, but move in opposite directions. For
the aircraft to enter a left bank, the angle of attack
of a portion of the right wing must increase. You
A fixed-wing aircraft is one in which the main
accomplish this by lowering that aileron to
lifting surface remains stationary with respect to
increase the lift on that wing. The aileron on the
the rest of the aircraft. This classification also
left wing is raised to decrease the lift on that wing.
includes such aircraft designs as the swing wing
The aircraft then rotates about its longitudinal
F-14. Fixed-wing aircraft have certain fixed
axis until the ailerons are neutralized in some angle
surfaces or airfoils--wings and vertical and
of bank. The aircraft remains in that bank angle
horizontal stabilizers--that provide stability
until you again move the ailerons.
airfoils--ailerons, elevators, and a rudder. These
in a bank, lift developed by the wings is displaced
permit the pilot to control the aircraft.
Figure 8-8.-Fixed-wing aircraft controls.