times greater than that of fresh water.) Pure
distilled water is not a good electrical conductor,
Volatile liquids, such as insulating varnish,
and it is suitable for emergency use on small
lacquer, turpentine, and kerosene, are dangerous
electrical fires. If you must use fresh water or
when used near operating electrical equipment
seawater, use a fog head or tip hose nozzle in
electrical in electronic equipment spaces. The fog
because sparks from the equipment can ignite the
fumes. When these liquids are used in compart-
is a fine diffusion or mist of water particles, with
ments containing nonoperating equipment, make
sure there is enough ventilation to avoid an
danger of electric shock unless the equipment is
accumulation of fumes. Also, make sure the space
is clear of all fumes before energizing the
from the fog frequently damages the electrical
components. Be careful when using the fire hose.
Never use alcohol or gasoline for cleaning; use
Pressure at the fireplug may be as much as 100
only an approved cleaning agent.
PSI. An unrestrained fire hose may result in
Today, all aviation fuels are hydrocarbons.
whiplash for the person holding it.
Handling hydrocarbon products is hazardous
Do not use foam on electrical fires. Foam can
because of their flash point. Products such as
gasoline, solvents, and most crude oils begin to
damage equipment and possibly pose a shock
vaporizes at or below 80°F; their flash point is
hazard to personnel. If necessary, you can use
foam on de-energized circuits. When a blanket of
reached at 80°F. Their flash point makes them
foam goes on a burning substance, the foam
the most hazardous petroleum products to handle.
Other petroleum products, such as kerosene and
smothers the fire, cutting off the air supply to the
lubricating oils, have a flash point above 80°F,
burning substance. As the supply of oxygen
making them less hazardous.
decreases, the fire dies out.
The vapors of petroleum, gasoline, and other
When fighting electrical fires, you should use
petroleum products cause drowsiness when
inhaled. Petroleum vapors in concentrations of
the following general procedures:
0.1 percent can cause dizziness to the extent of
inability to walk straight after 4 minutes of
1. Promptly de-energize the circuit or equip-
exposure. Longer exposure and/or greater
concentrations may cause unconsciousness or
2. Sound an alarm according to station
regulations or ship's fire bill. When ashore, notify
The first symptoms of exposure to toxic
the fire department; if afloat, notify the officer
(poisonous) vapors are headaches, nausea, and
of the deck. Give the fire location, and state what
dizziness. When working in an area where there
is burning. If possible, report the extent of the
are possible toxic vapors, stay alert. If you get
a headache, become dizzy, or become nauseous,
3. Close compartment air vents or windows.
4. Control or extinguish the fire using a C02
you might be exposed to toxic vapors. You should
leave the area and report the condition.
You recover from early symptoms quickly
5. Avoid prolonged exposure to high con-
when you move to an area having fresh air. If you
centrations of carbon dioxide in confined spaces.
find people overcome by vapors, get them
You can suffocate in confined spaces unless
immediate medical attention. First aid consists of
you're using special breathing apparatus.
the prevention of chilling, and, if breathing has
6. Administer artificial ventilation and oxygen
stopped, artificial respiration.
to a person overcome by carbon dioxide fumes,
If gasoline remains in contact with you skin,
and keep the victim warm.
it may irritate the skin, particularly under soaked
clothing or gloves. Remove clothing or shoes
Even under normal conditions, fire aboard a
soaked with gasoline at once. Wash gasoline from
Navy vessel at sea can kill and injure more people
the skin with soap and water. Repeated contact
and cause more ship damage than happens in
with gasoline removes protective oils from the
battle. All personnel need to know the dangers
skin, causing drying, roughening, chapping, and
of fire. You need to know the type and location
cracking, and in some cases, infection. While
of all fire-fighting equipment and apparatus in
removing your clothes, an arc, caused by static
your immediate working and berthing spaces and
throughout the ship.