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MAGNETIC ANOMALY DETECTION (MAD)

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underwater sounds and transmits them to the monitoring receiver in the aircraft. By dropping sonobuoys in a pattern over a large ocean area, the airborne sonobuoy receiver operator can determine the approximate location of a submarine. Often its course and speed can also be determined. These methods of detection are passive, and therefore give the aircraft an advantage. Other passive and active tactics use sonobuoys to localize the submarine to a point where attack by airborne weapons is possible. The sonobuoy continues to float and gather information until a seawater soluble plug dissolves and lets the sonobuoy flood and sink. This action removes an obstruction in the water and permits the frequency of that sonobuoy to be used by another. MAGNETIC ANOMALY DETECTION (MAD) Another method of localizing a submerged submarine is by using MAD equipment. This equipment uses the principle that a metallic submarine disturbs the magnetic lines of force of the earth. Light, radar, or sound energy cannot pass from air into water and return to the air in any degree that is usable for airborne detection. However, lines of force in a magnetic field can make this change. Therefore, a submarine lying beneath the ocean's surface causes a distortion (anomaly) in the earth's magnetic field. The distortion can be detected from a position in the air above the submarine. Detection of this anomaly is the function of MAD equipment. Figure 7-25, view A, shows the angular direction at which natural lines of magnetic force enter and leave the surface of the earth. View B represents an area of undisturbed natural magnetic strength. In views C and D, the submarine's magnetic field distorts the natural field. The density of the natural field is decreased in view C and increased in view D. The MAD equipment in the aircraft allows the operator to search selected areas of ocean immediately and accurately. Upon detecting and evaluating a possible enemy, the operator relays the information to surface and airborne forces. Aviation Antisubmarine Warfare Operator (AW) ratings operate ASW equipment. 7-20 N EARTH EQUATOR S (A) (B) (D) C ( ) ASW AIRCRAFT WITH MAD ANF0725 Figure 7-25.—Simplified comparison of natural field density and submarine anomaly.



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