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LANDING PROCEDURE

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intervals between aircraft being launched is predetermined and reflects case 1, 2, or 3 launch. Normally, intervals are as close as 30 seconds or within a safe launch sequence. This procedure, alternating between the catapults (2, 3, or 4), is continued until all jet aircraft are airborne. Conventional aircraft may be catapulted  or  deck  launched,  depending  on  the operational situation. In this manner, an entire deckload of aircraft can be launched in a matter of minutes. LANDING PROCEDURE Landing aircraft on a carrier is one of the most dangerous  operations  performed.  All  hands  not involved in landing operations are ordered to clear the flight deck, catwalks, and guntubs. Personnel whose duties require that they be in exposed places must keep alert and watch incoming aircraft so they can get clear in case of an abnormal or emergency landing. WARNING Personnel should not turn their backs on landing aircraft or aircraft taxiing out of the arresting gear. Before the aircraft landing, the flight deck aft is checked by the arresting gear officer to ensure the following: !    Catapult gear is clear of the landing area. !    The shuttle is retracted and the cover is in place on the No. 3 catapult. !    Sheaves are up in the aircraft area. !    The Fresnel Lens Optical Landing System (FLOLS) is turned on, or the manually operated visual landing system (MOVLAS) is rigged in its place. !    The barricade hatch is clear, and a tractor is hooked to the stored barricade if it is needed. !    The green rotating beacon at the aft end of the island is turned on. !    The aircraft are clear of the fouled deck line. !    The arresting gear crews are manned and ready. !    The landing signal officer's (LSO) platform is manned and ready. !    The gear is set for the first aircraft. (The recovery officer then calls, "Gear manned and ready; need a green light from the PRI-FLY.") NOTE: Aircraft carriers with an angled deck elevator also have to be checked for the following items: 1. The stanchions are all the way down. 2. The removable coamings are stored. 3. The aircraft elevators are up and in the locked position. The ship is then turned into the wind, and the air officer switches the aft rotating beacon from red to green, giving the pilot the signal to begin landing operations. The aircraft enters a standard traffic pattern for the landing approach. The landing signal officer (LSO) stationed portside aft on the flight deck monitors or directs the pilot in the final approach. By using various signals or radio voice communications, the LSO corrects any discrepancy in the aircraft's speed, altitude, and attitude. If the aircraft is in the proper position, the LSO gives the pilot (propeller-type aircraft) a "cut." The "cut" signal can be a hand signal, a light signal, a radio transmission, or a combination of any two of these signals. The pilot then flies the aircraft onto the deck. If, on approaching the flight deck, the aircraft is not in the proper position, the pilot is given a WAVE-OFF by the LSO.  This means that the pilot must again enter the traffic pattern and make a new approach. The Fresnel Lens Optical Landing System (FLOLS) is a major improvement in carrier aviation. This system places the major control of the aircraft in the hands of one person (the pilot) instead of two. It also gives the pilot quicker, more certain awareness of errors in his/her approach. Using the FLOLS, the aircraft enters a standard traffic pattern for the landing approach. The FLOLS provides continuous glide path information to the pilot. Propeller-type aircraft are given a "cut" signal by light or voice radio by the LSO. The pilot must maintain correct airspeed and line up the center line of the landing area. If the aircraft is not on the glide path or the deck is foul, the LSO flashes the WAVE-OFF light located on the FLOLS. The wave-off is mandatory, and the pilot must again enter the traffic pattern and make a new approach. If a jet aircraft makes a good approach and the deck is clear, no signal is given by the LSO. The aircraft continues on the glide path with power on until it 10-7



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