Quantcast Figure 4-4.-Isothermal conditions

Share on Google+Share on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on TwitterShare on DiggShare on Stumble Upon
Custom Search
 
  
thermal gradient condition, the layer depth is the depth of maximum temperature. Above layer depth, the temperature may be uniform, or a weak positive or negative gradient may be present. Layer effect is the partial protection from echo ranging and listening detection, which a submarine gains when it submerges below layer depth. Reports from surface vessels indicate that effective ranges on submarines are greatly reduced when the submarine dives below a thermocline, and that the echoes received are often weak and sound “mushy.” Figure 4-4.-Isothermal conditions. (constant temperature).    Refer to figure 4-4 as you read the following text. The surface layer of water in the figure is isothermal, but beneath this layer the temperature decreases with depth. This causes the sound beam to split and bend upward in the isothermal layer and downward below it. Remember, when no temperature difference exists, the sound beam refracts upward due to pressure. When the temperature changes with depth, the sound beam bends away from the warmer water. Under normal conditions the sea’s temperature structure is similar to that shown in figure 4-5. This structure consists of three layers as follows: 1. A surface layer of varying thickness with uniform temperature (isothermal) or a relatively slight temperature gradient. 2. The thermocline, which is a region of relatively rapid decrease in temperature. 3. The rest of the ocean, with slowly decreasing temperature down to the sea floor. If this arrangement changes, the path of the sound beam through the water will change. Layer depth is the depth from the surface to the top of a sharp negative gradient. Under positive Figure 4-5.-Normal sea temperature structure. 4-5



Aviation News
AgustaWestland Signs Latest AW101 Support Contract with UK MoD
AgustaWestland has signed a contract with the UK Ministry of...
aviationtoday.com
NATO’s AWACS Aircraft to Upgrade Avionics to Meet Mandates
NATO’s Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) aircraft. Photo: Rockwell...
aviationtoday.com
NATO Ugrades AWACS Aircraft Avionics to Meet Mandates
NATO’s Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) aircraft. Photo: Rockwell...
aviationtoday.com
DARPA Awards Contracts for Tern Naval UAS Project
Tern UAS phase 2 artist rendering. Photo: DARPA [Avionics Today...
aviationtoday.com
RwandAir selects the A330 for fleet growth and modernisation
New Airbus operator with commitment for two A330s Share this...
airbus.com
US Army to Use Ensco Avionics in GBSAA
[Avionics Today 03-24-2015] The U.S. Army will use the Ensco...
aviationtoday.com
IS&S Completes NextGen C-130 FMS Flight Testing
[Avionics Today 03-24-2015] Innovative Solutions & Support (IS&S) completed the...
aviationtoday.com
FAA Streamlines UAS COAs for Section 333
The Federal Aviation Administration has established an interim policy to...
faa.gov
Airbus celebrates delivery of its 9,000th aircraft
A321 for fast-growing Vietnamese carrier VietJetAir Share this Read more...
airbus.com
Textron Preflight EW System Tester Selected for F-35
Textron Systems’ Model 527 radar signal simulator. Photo: Textron [Avionics...
aviationtoday.com
Amazon Gets Experimental Airworthiness Certificate
March 19The Federal Aviation Administration today issued an experimental airworthiness...
faa.gov
Cobham AvComm Introduces New 8800S Digital Radio Test Set
[Avionics Today 3-19-2015] Cobham AvComm has introduced the new 8800S...
aviationtoday.com
Airline 1: supporting a smooth A350 XWB commercial service entry
When the cornerstone member of Airbus’ new-generation A350 XWB Family...
airbus.com
UH-60 Black Hawk Crash, 11 Heroes Lost
At approximately 8:30 p.m. on March 10, 2015, a Louisiana...
aviationtoday.com
VxWorks 653 Selected for Black Hawk Cockpit Upgrade
[Avionics Today 3-18-2015] Northrop Grumman Corp. has selected the Wind...
aviationtoday.com
Airbus Helicopters Delivers Two Upgraded AS532s to French Army Aviation
On Friday, March 13, the French General Directorate for Armament...
aviationtoday.com
French Army Aviation Receives Enhanced Airbus Helicopters AS532 Airframes
Last Friday, the French General Directorate for Armament (DGA) received...
aviationtoday.com
Tintin in ‘la ville Rose’
Airbus & Toulouse airport welcome a Brussels Airlines A320 with...
airbus.com
Vueling takes delivery of its first enhanced comfort A320 cabin featuring the Airbus Space-Flex concept
Airbus Innovations offering flexibility and maximising airline revenues Share this...
airbus.com
Airbus and SIAEC to strengthen collaboration by establishing maintenance training services in Singapore
Signifying Airbus’ latest milestone to become even closer to its...
airbus.com


Privacy Statement - Copyright Information. - Contact Us

comments powered by Disqus

Integrated Publishing, Inc.
9438 US Hwy 19N #311 Port Richey, FL 34668

Phone For Parts Inquiries: (727) 755-3260
Google +