requirements, and whether the tests are routine or
PRESSURIZED METHOD.-- You will be able to
perform pressurized sampling on most of the operating
equipment in the engineering plant. In fact, when you
use the pressurized method, you will be taking samples
on equipment that is already in operation. The main
problem with taking pressurized samples is that you
Systems without online purification capability
must take additional precautions, such as wearing
sometimes have difficulty maintaining a clear and bright
protective clothing (rubber gloves, an apron, and
oil condition. In such equipment, frequent oil changes
chemical splash goggles), and taking extra care to avoid
to maintain a clear and bright condition are time
an excessive loss of oil. Be very careful when you take
consuming and costly. In these cases, you should
these samples. Try to avoid accidentally dumping the oil
perform the transparency test.
from either the sump or the tank. Sound the sump on
First, place a PMS card behind the sample bottle in
small equipment both before and after you take the
a well-lighted area. Be sure to hold the card directly
samples because flushing and sampling can both cause
against the sample bottle. Try to read the printed words
a low sump condition.
on the card. If you can read the words, the oil passes the
transparency test. If you can not read the words, the oil
fails the test. If the oil passes the transparency test, it is
satisfactory for use. If it fails the test, your next step is
to perform the BS&W test.
No matter what method you use, all your samples
must meet the visual inspection requirements. These
requirements, the clear and bright criteria, are basically
the same as those you would use for fuels. The only
You will perform the BS&W test on all types of oils.
difference is you must allow an oil sample that has a
The BS&W test you will perform on oils is very similar
hazy appearance to settle for 30 minutes to allow any
to the one we described for fuels. Since the procedure is
entrained air a chance to dissipate. If the sample clears
basically the same, we will just discuss the differences.
from the bottom to the top, you can assume the haze was
The only differences in the procedure for oils are that
the result of entrained air. If the haze clears from the top
you must (1) dilute the oil sample, and (2) add the water
to the bottom, however, it is likely the result of solids or
and sediment readings of both tubes to get the final
free water contamination.
After allowing the haze to clear, you must visually
To dilute the oil sample, add exactly 50 mL of a
inspect the sample to determine if it is clear. Start by
water-saturated mixture of dry-cleaning solvent
inverting the sample bottle and observing the particulate
(P-D-680, type II) to each of the two 100 mL tubes. After
matter as it settles. Be sure to hold the bottle in the
vigorously agitating the oil sample, pour the oil into each
inverted position for at least 1 minute. Then, turn the
of the 100 mL tubes. Pour enough oil into each tube to
bottle in its right-side-up position for 1 minute, and then
make up the remaining 50 mL. Agitate each tube to make
invert it again for an additional minute. Invert the sample
sure the oil and dry-cleaning solvent are completely
bottle at least three times. If you still see any particulate
mixed. Invert each tube at least five times. Allow the
matter in the oil, the sample has failed your visual
liquid to drain thoroughly from the tip of the tube each
inspection for clear and bright oil and you must perform
time you invert it. Now check your readings against the
additional testing. The additional tests will be based on
the type of oil and the type of equipment.
1. If the sediment is less than or equal to 0.1 percent
and the combined BS&W is less than or equal to 0.2
percent, the oil is satisfactory for use.
The oil testing procedures we will discuss in this
2. If the sediment is less than or equal to 0.1 percent
section are for transparency, BS&W, mineral oil
and the combined BS&W is somewhere between 0.2
and 0.4 percent, the equipment is in a warning condition.
In this case, you need to identify the cause of the
usually performed either as a PMS maintenance
requirement or under special conditions. In the
replace it with clean oil when the equipment is secured.
following sections, we will describe each of these tests.
Later, we will tell you about each oil type, its testing
Do not operate the equipment longer than 7 days after