with steel, throw it away and find another. Hold
your hands close over the dry tinder; strike the
flint with a knife blade or other small piece of steel
with a sharp, scraping, downward motion so that
the sparks fall in the center of the tinder. Adding
a few drops of JP-5 to the tinder before you strike
the flint will make the tinder flame up-for safety,
keep your head to one side. When the tinder
begins to smolder, fan it gently into a flame. Then
transfer the blazing tinder to the kindling pile or
add kindling gradually to the tinder. The wrist
compass furnished in the individual survival kit
( S R U - 3 1 / P ) c a n b e u s e d t o l o c a t e / i d e n t i fy
Any convex lens can be used in bright sunlight
to concentrate the suns rays on the tinder and
start it burning.
There are many methods of making fire by
friction (bow and drill, fire plough, fire thong,
etc.), but all require practice. If you are proficient
in one of these methods, use it; but remember that
flint and steel will give the same results with less
If you are with the aircraft and have a live
storage battery, direct a spark onto the tinder by
scratching the ends of wires together to produce
Burning Aircraft Fuel
If you are with the aircraft, you can improvise
a stove to burn jet fuel, lubricating oil, or a
mixture of them. Place 1 to 2 inches of sand or
fine gravel in the bottom of a can or other
container and add fuel. Be careful when lighting;
the fuel may burst into flames at first. Make slots
at the top of the canto let flame and smoke out,
and punch holes just above the level of the sand
to provide a draft. To make a fire burn longer,
mix fuel with oil. If there is no container, simply
dig a hole in the ground, fill it with loose dirt,
pour on fuel, and light; take care to protect your
face and hands. Always ensure that you handle
fuel carefully to prevent spilling it on your
You can use lubricating oil with a wick
arrangement for fuel. Make the wick of string,
rope, rag, or even a cigarette, and rest it on the
edge of a receptacle filled with oil. Also, soak
rags, paper, wood, or other fuel in oil, and throw
them on the fire.
You can also make a stove out of any empty
waxed ration carton by cutting off one end and
punching a hole in each side near the unopened
end. Stand the carton on the closed end; stuff an
empty sack loosely inside the carton, leaving an
end hanging over the top; light this endthe stove
will burn from the top down and will boil more
than a pint of water.
Do not waste matches by trying to start a
poorly prepared fire. Do not use matches for
lighting cigarettes; get alight from the fire or use
a burning lens. Do not build unnecessary fires;
save your fuel. Practice primitive methods of
making fires before all the matches are gone.
Carry some dry tinder with you in a water-
proof container. Expose it to the sun on dry days.
Adding a little powdered charcoal will improve
it and allow the tinder to stay dry, as the
charcoal will absorb small quantities of water
vapor from the humidity. Collect good tinder
wherever it can be found.
Collect kindling along the trail before making
camp. Keep firewood dry under shelter. Dry damp
wood near the fire so that it can be used later.
Save some of the best kindling and fuel for quick
fire making in the morning.
To split logs, whittle hardwood wedges and
drive them into cracks in the log with a rock or
club; split wood burns more easily.
To make a fire last overnight, place large logs
over it so that the fire will burn into the heart of
the logs. When a good bed of coals has been
formed, cover it lightly with ashes and then dry
earth. In the morning the fire will still be
Fire can be carried from one place to another
in the form of a lighted punk, smoldering coconut
husk, or slow-burning coals. When you want a
new fire, fan the smoldering material into flame.
Do not waste fire-making materials. Use
only what is necessary to start a fire and to keep
it going for the purpose needed. Put out the fire
upon leaving the campsite.
ARCTIC. Do not build a fire under a snow-
covered tree-snow may fall and put out the fire.