When an aircraft must bewitched or crash-
landed, the sudden shifting of cargo or equipment
may cause injury or loss of life. Therefore, it is
important to secure any loose gear that may not
be tied down and recheck cargo for security of
tiedowns. Emergency gear, such as life rafts,
water, food, and first-aid kits, should be placed
in the aircraft where it can be easily removed in
the event of a crash landing. Each type of aircraft
has different ditching or crash-landing pro-
cedures. Therefore, you should refer to the
NATOPS manual for ditching procedures of each
Once your aircraft has crash-landed, clear the
aircraft as soon as possible. If you have time,
remove the emergency supplies from the aircraft.
. Once the aircraft is cleared, stay a safe
distance away until the engines have cooled and
any spilled fuel has evaporated.
. Set up temporary shelter for protection
from the wind and rain. If a fire is needed, start
it at once.
. Get your emergency radio operating and
have other signaling equipment, such as flares,
ready for immediate use.
. Now relax and rest until you are over the
shock of the crash. Leave extensive preparations
and planning until later.
. After you rest, organize the camp. Appoint
individuals to specific duties. Inventory all food
and equipment. Look for a water supply. Prepare
a shelter for protection from rain, hot sun, snow,
wind, or cold. Collect all possible fuel for fires.
Try to have at least a days supply of fuel on hand.
Look for food.
. Prepare signals that can be recognized
from the air. Spread a parachute canopy out. This
will be a good signaling aid for search aircraft.
If you have bailed out, try to make your way
to the crashed aircraft. The rescuers can spot it
from the air even when they cannot see a person.
Stay with the aircraft unless briefing instruc-
tions have been to the contrary. Do not leave the
aircraft crash area unless you know you are within
easy walking distance of help. If you travel, leave
a note giving planned route (except in hostile
territory). Stick to your plan so rescuers can locate
You are the key man in the rescue. Help the
search parties to find you and follow their
instructions when they sight you.
Most people, when they think of arctic
survival, think of trying to survive on an ice float
at a temperature of 50° below zero without
shelter or the possibility of getting food. This is
Even on the ice pack, a person who is properly
prepared can survive. Many of the arctic regions
have abundant plant and animal life. The arctic
regions are not too different from some regions
of the United States.
In the Arctic, as in any area, a shelter can be
i m p r o v i s e d f r o m p a r t s o f t h e a i r c r a f t a nd
emergency equipment or from natural materials
in the vicinity.
The kind of shelter that is made depends on
whether protection is needed from rain, cold,
heat, sun, or insects, and also whether the camp
is only for a night or for many days.
Choose the location for the camp carefully.
Try to be near fuel and waterespecially water.
A R C T I C W I N T E R . Do not live in the
aircraft-it will be too cold. Try to improvise a
better insulated shelter outdoors.
Camp in an area of timber, if possible, to be
near fuel. If you cannot find timber, choose a spot
protected from wind and drifting snow. Do not
camp at the bases of steep slopes or cliffs where
s n o w m a y d r i f t h e a v i l y o r c o m e d o w n in
avalanches or in areas where you run the risk of
floods, rockfalls, or being battered by winds.
In timbered country, a good winter shelter is
a lean-to. Lay the covering boughs shingle
fashion, starting from the bottom. If you have
a piece of parachute nylon, use it for the roof.
Close the ends with fabric or boughs.
Keep the front openings of all shelters
crosswind. A windbreak of snow or ice blocks set
close to the shelter is helpful.
In making shelters, remember that snow is a
good insulator. In timberless country, make a