TURN. Signals using these basic maneuvering flags
are called maneuvering signals.
A complete maneuvering signal contains one or
more maneuvering flags and pennants, followed or
preceded by numeral flags. Three numeral flags
indicate a true course or a true bearing, depending
upon the maneuvering flag or pennant with which they
are displayed. When fewer than three flags are hoisted,
they indicate a relative change of course or bearing in
10-degree units. The ANSWER pennant indicates half
units, 5-degree increments, a fraction (l/2), or a
decimal point. If the OTC desires to send a signal for
a change of speed to 16.5 knots, for example, the
Signalmen would hoist SPEED ONE SIX ANS. For a
speed of 12.7 knots, however, they would hoist
SPEED ONE TWO ANS SEVEN.
The CORPEN pennant is spoken, written, and
transmitted CORPEN. It is used to change the course
of ships in succession (known as column movement
or wheeling) or, with a modifier, to indicate a course
of a ship formation. When CORPEN is used to alter
course by wheeling in a relative direction from dead
ahead, it precedes the PORT flag or STARBOARD
pennant and one or two numeral flags, which indicate
the number of tens of degrees; three numeral flags
would indicate the course on which to steady.
CORPEN STBD 9Alter course by wheeling to
starboard 90 degrees
CORPEN PORT 090Alter course by wheeling
to port to course 090 degrees
CORPEN PORT 4 ANSAlter course by
wheeling to port 45 degrees
The TURN pennant, spoken, written, and
transmitted TURN, may be used in any formation. It
requires that all addressees put over their rudders
simultaneously when the execute signal is given.
Interpretation of these signals is always a turn together
to starboard or to port.
The direction and specified amount of the turn
must be indicated. TURN precedes the PORT flag or
STARBOARD pennant and one or two numeral flags
that indicate the amount of degrees of the turn in tens
of degrees relative to the present course; three numeral
flags indicate the course on which to steady.
TURN STBD9Ships turn together to starboard
TURN PORT 270Ships turn together to port to
course 270 degrees
TURN STBD 1 ANSShips turn together to
starboard 15 degrees
The FORMATION pennant, spoken FORMATION
but written and transmitted FORM, is used to assemble
ships in a formation or to change a formation. The most
common use of a FORM signal is to order a group of
ships to arrange or rearrange themselves on an indicated
line of bearing from the guide. When the desired
direction is true, the usual three numeral flags are
hoisted. When indicated bearing is relative, inclusion of
the PORT flag or STARBOARD pennant determines
whether the line of bearing is to the right or left of the
FORM 225Ships are to form on true bearing of
225° from guide.
FORM PORT 9Ships are to form on relative
bearing indicated in tens of degrees from guide (in
this instance, 090° relative to port side of the guide).
Relative bearings are always 000° to 359°
clockwise around the ship. For purposes of forming
up, however, these bearings run only to 180°bow to
sternand may be on either side of the ship. A good
reason for that is there are a number of standard form
signals consisting simply of FORM and a number. For
instance, FORM 9 without a direction pennant means
Form divisions in line abreast to starboard, division
guides bearing astern, a signal entirely different from
FORM PORT 9.
Although execution of a FORM signal may
require a change of course to carry out the maneuver,
the final course always is the same as the original
course. The only element that changes is the
maneuvering ship's position relative to the guide.
The STATION pennantspoken, written, and
transmitted STATIONis used mainly to assign
position or station to a ship or unit that is joining
another ship or unit, or to move a ship or unit from one
station to another. When accompanied by a distance
or interval signal, the pennant indicates the distance a
ship or unit is to be stationed from the guide or from
the ship indicated in the signal.
When accompanying a ship's call sign, STATION
alone directs that ship to take its proper and assigned