The different types of apparatus used will produce
corresponding variances of pitch and tone, thus giving
your ear a chance to compare the sound of a station
with its description in Light Lists. The types of
apparatus and the sounds produced are as follows:
Diaphones create sound by means of slotted
reciprocating pistons actuated by compressed air. The
resulting sound consists of two tones of different pitch,
the first part of the blast being high-pitched, the
Diaphragm horns are sounded by a disk
diaphragm that is vibrated by compressed air, steam, or
electricity. Duplex or triplex horn units of differing
pitch give a time signal.
Reed horns emit sound through a steel reed that
is vibrated by compressed air.
Sirens produce sound by either a disk or a
cupshaped rotor. They are actuated by compressed air,
steam, or electricity.
Whistles make sound by compressed air or steam
admitted through a slot into a cylindrical chamber.
Bells are sounded by gas or electricity, or possibly
by a hand-hammer; on buoys, wave action is used.
RULES OF THE ROAD
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: Identify and
explain the differences between International
and Inland Rules of the Road.
As a Signalman, you must become acquainted
with basic Rules of the Road. Rules of the Road are
published by the Coast Guard in a booklet entitled
Navigation Rules, InternationalInland,
COMDTINST M16672.2B. You should use it to
become more familiar with the different Rules of the
International Rules are specific rules for all
vessels upon the high seas and on connecting waters
navigable by seagoing vessels. Inland Rules apply to
all vessels upon the inland waters of the United States
and to vessels of the United States on the Canadian
waters of the Great Lakes to the extent that there is no
conflict with Canadian law.
International Rules were formalized at the
Convention on the International Regulations for
Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972. These rules are
commonly called 72 COLREGS.
The Inland Navigational Rules discussed in this
chapter replace the old Inland Rules, the Western
Rivers Rules, the Great Lakes Rules, their respective
pilot rules, and parts of the Motorboat Act of 1940.
The new rules went into effect on all United States
inland waters except the Great Lakes on 24 December
1981. The Inland Rules became effective on the Great
Lakes on 1 March 1983.
The International/Inland Rules contain the 38
rules that comprise the main body of the rules, and
five annexes, which are regulations. The International/
Inland Rules are broken down into five parts as
Part BSteering and Sailing Rules
Part CLight and Shapes
Part DSound and Light Signals
STEERING AND SAILING RULES
You must understand the Steering and Sailing
Rules and be able to apply them to various traffic
situations. Although all Rules of the Roads are
important, the steering and sailing are the most
essential to know to avoid collision. The risk of
collision can be considered to exist if the bearing of
an approaching vessel does not change within reason.
In International Rules, whistle signals are signals
of actions; and in Inland Rules, they are signals of
intention. The following is a list of International and
Inland whistle signals.
INTERNATIONAL INLAND RULES
One short blast
I am altering my I intend to leave you
course to starboard
on my port side
Two short blasts
I am altering my
I intend to leave you
course to port
on my starboard side
Three short blasts
I am operating astern
Five or more short
One prolonged blast Will be sounded by a (Same as
vessel when nearing International)
a blind bend around
which vision is