For detailed information concerning aircraft launch
accessories, you should refer to the U.S. Navy Aircraft
Torpedoes Accessories and Trajectory Data and
Quality Assurance Test and Inspection Plan for
Installation of Torpedo Mk 46 Launch Accessories,
OTTO FUEL II
Otto Fuel II is the propellant for the propulsion
system of the Mk 46 (all Mods) torpedo. Otto Fuel II is
first sprayed under pressure into a combustion chamber
where it is ignited. The exhaust gases from the burning
fuel are used to drive the torpedo engine. The major
advantage of this system is the short turnaround time
required for exercise weapons.
Otto Fuel II is a stable, liquid monopropellant
composed of a nitrate ester in solution with a
desensitizing agent and a stabilizer. It is a bright red,
free-flowing, oily liquid that is heavier than water.
(NOTE: When in a thin layer, such as a spill, stain, or
leak, Otto Fuel II is a yellow-orange color.) Otto Fuel II
is noncorrosive. It has an extremely low vapor pressure,
minimizing explosive and toxic hazards. Otto Fuel II
can detonate, but the conditions and stimulus required
are so extreme that it is considered a nonexplosive. The
propellant has a high flash point and other safety
characteristics. It is classified as a low fire hazard
The ingredient of medical concern in Otto Fuel II is
the nitrated ester. Nitrated esters are known for their
acute effects on the human body. Symptoms of
exposure to Otto Fuel II include the following:
Drop in blood pressure
NOTE: Depending upon the sensitivity of the
tolerance may develop during the remainder of
the working period. After exposure to a
vapor-free environment, the first contact with
Otto Fuel II vapors often causes these
symptoms to recur.
A stowage space is specifically designated for each
type of torpedo stowed aboard a combat ship. When
handling Otto Fuel II, at least two crewmembers should
handle the fuel. All personnel must know the general
characteristics of Otto Fuel II, the safety precautions for
handling the fuel, and protective equipment required.
To avoid hazardous situations when handling Otto Fuel
II, personnel should be well trained and supervised. For
further information concerning Otto Fuel II, you should
refer to Otto Fuel II Safety, Storage, and Handling
Instructions, NAVSEA S6340-AA-MMA-010.
REVIEW NUMBER 1
What is the primary weapon used for
List the Mk 46 configurations.
When the Mk 46 is used in the exercise
configuration, what exercise head is used?
After launch, what equipment stabilizes the
torpedo during its descent into the water?
List the air stabilizers used for (a) fixed-wing
and (b) rotary-wing aircraft.
Torpedoes are suspended from bomb racks or
shackles by Mk 78 Mod 0 or Mod 1
suspension bands. How do the suspension
bands release when the torpedo is launched?
What propellant is used in the propulsion
system of the Mk 46 torpedo?
Because Otto Fuel II has a high flash point,
low vapor pressure, and is noncorrosive, it is
classified as ___________.
List the symptoms you might exhibit if you
were exposed to Otto Fuel II.
For safety reasons, how many crewmembers
should be present when handling Otto Fuel
LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Identify aircraft-
laid mines and recognize their classifications.
Describe aircraft-laid mine components and
identify operational aircraft mines.
Naval mines are used in offensive or defensive
mining operations. The primary objective is to
approaches, convoy anchorages, and seaward coastal
Aircraft mine delivery is the principal method of
making large-scale mining attacks on enemy coastal
and port areas. Aircraft-laid mines are usually carried
and dropped in the same way as bombs, but they have