Communications failure Each person who operates an aircraft in a Class D airspace
area must maintain two-way radio communications with the ATC facility having
jurisdiction over that area.
1. If the aircraft radio fails in flight under IFR, the pilot must comply with CFR
2. If the aircraft radio fails in flight under VFR, the pilot in command may operate
that aircraft and land if:
Weather conditions are at or above basic VFR weather minimums
Visual contact with the tower is maintained
A clearance to land is received
Minimum altitudes when operating to an airport in Class D airspace:
1. Unless required by the applicable distance-from-cloud criteria, each pilot
operating a large or turbine-powered airplane must enter the traffic pattern at an
altitude of at least 1,500 feet above the elevation of the airport and maintain at
least 1,500 feet until further descent is required for a safe landing.
2. Each pilot operating a large or turbine-powered airplane approaching to land on a
runway served by an instrument approach procedure with vertical guidance, if the
airplane is so equipped, must:
Operate that airplane at an altitude at or above the glide path between the
published final approach fix and the decision altitude (DA), or decision
height (DH), as applicable
Operate that airplane at or above the glide path, between the point of
interception of glide path and the DA or the DH if compliance with the
applicable distance-from-cloud criteria requires glide path interception
3. Each pilot operating an airplane approaching to land on a runway served by a
visual approach slope indicator must maintain an altitude at or above the glide
path unless a lower altitude is necessary for a safe landing.
4. Paragraphs (2) and (3) above do not prohibit normal bracketing maneuvers
above or below the glide path that are conducted for the purpose of remaining on
the glide path.
Approaches Except when conducting a circling approach under part 97 of this chapter
or unless otherwise required by ATC, each pilot must:
1. Circle the airport to the left, if operating an airplane
2. Avoid the flow of fixed-wing aircraft, if operating a helicopter
Departures No person may operate an aircraft departing from an airport except in
compliance with the following:
1. Each pilot must comply with any departure procedures established for that airport
by the FAA.
2. Unless otherwise required by the prescribed departure procedure for that airport
or the applicable distance from clouds criteria, each pilot of a turbine-powered
airplane and each pilot of a large airplane must climb to an altitude of 1,500 feet
above the surface as rapidly as practicable.
Noise abatement Where a formal runway use program has been established by the
FAA, each pilot of a large or turbine-powered airplane assigned a noise abatement