Military Operations Areas
A military operations area (MOA) is airspace designated outside of Class A airspace to
separate or segregate certain nonhazardous military activities from IFR traffic and to
identify for VFR traffic where these activities are conducted.
Purpose of Military Operations Area
MOAs are designated to contain nonhazardous military flight activities including but not
limited to air combat maneuvers, air intercepts, low altitude tactics, etc.
Identify a MOA by a name followed by the acronym MOA and the two-letter state
abbreviation (e.g., Dome MOA, AZ). MOA subdivisions may be identified by a suffix
consisting of a number, letter, cardinal point, or the terms ―High‖ or ―Low,‖ (e.g., Moody
1; Gamecock B; Tiger North; Smoky High). Either the proponent or the service area
office selects MOA names.
Controlled Firing Areas
A controlled firing area (CFA) is airspace designated to contain activities that if not
conducted in a controlled environment would be hazardous to nonparticipating aircraft.
Purpose of Controlled Firing Areas
CFAs provide a means to accommodate certain hazardous activities that can be
immediately suspended if a nonparticipating aircraft approaches the area.
CFAs should be considered only when necessary to accommodate activities that are
capable of being immediately suspended and when it has been specifically determined
that the airspace is not warranted a restricted area designation.
The responsibility lies totally with the CFA user to terminate activities so that there is no
impact on aviation. There is no requirement for nonparticipating aircraft to avoid the
airspace, nor are any communications or air traffic control (ATC) separation
Examples of CFA activities include:
Static testing of large rocket motors
CFAs are not intended to contain aircraft ordnance delivery activities. Operation of
observer or surveillance aircraft is permitted.
Other activities (e.g., artillery) may be considered if they can meet the criteria and
comply with the safety precautions prescribed in this chapter.
CFAs may be designated for either military or civil activities.