An unseen but dangerous condition for aircraft is turbulence. The effect of turbulence on
aircraft ranges all the way from a few annoying bumps to severe jolts. Some types of
turbulence have caused aircraft in flight to break up and disintegrate. Your job requires
that you collect data on turbulence and issue advisories as appropriate.
Types and Causes of Turbulence
Turbulence may exist with or without cloud conditions. Turbulence in clouds, such as
that associated with thunderstorms, is extremely dangerous. Turbulence is reported in
varying degrees of intensity. The classifications of intensities are light, moderate,
severe, and extreme.
In general, there are four causes for the development of turbulence (see Table 1-13).