Communications with control towers Unless otherwise authorized or required by ATC,
no person may operate an aircraft to, from, through, or on an airport having an
operational control tower unless two-way radio communications are maintained
between that aircraft and the control tower. Communications must be established prior
to 4 nautical miles from the airport, up to and including 2,500 feet AGL. However, if the
aircraft radio fails in flight, the pilot in command may operate that aircraft and land if
weather conditions are at or above basic VFR weather minimums, visual contact with
the tower is maintained, and a clearance to land is received. If the aircraft radio fails
while in flight under IFR, the pilot must comply with CFR 91.185.
Restricted and Prohibited Areas
No person may operate an aircraft within a restricted area (designated in part 73)
contrary to the restrictions imposed, or within a prohibited area, unless that person has
the permission of the using or controlling agency.
Each person conducting, within a restricted area, an aircraft operation (approved by the
using agency) that creates the same hazards as the operations for which the restricted
area was designated may deviate from the rules of this subpart that are not compatible
with the operation of the aircraft.
VISUAL FLIGHT RULES
A pilot operating as prescribed by VFR is flying according to the see-and-avoid concept.
Simply defined, this means pilots are responsible for their own separation from other
aircraft under most circumstances.
Basic VFR Weather Minimums
While flying in weather conditions equal to or better than those required for VFR flight,
the pilot has the primary responsibility of avoiding a collision.
A flight in minimum or near-minimum weather conditions is only undertaken on a VFR
clearance when absolutely necessary. However, pilots sometimes fly VFR in these
conditions, and it is during these times you must be extremely alert.
Cloud and Visibility Clearance Requirements
The minimum distance from clouds and visibility requirements that a pilot must maintain
during VFR flight depends upon:
Whether the flight is conducted during night or day