Figure 7-11.-The earth's magnetism.
only visual observations, darkness, rain, or
increases toward the magnetic poles. It should be
fog further limit its use. Therefore, whenever
clear that precise turns are difficult if referenced
possible, use pilotage in conjunction with other
to such a compass.
methods of navigation.
Pilotage is the directing of aircraft from point
Dead reckoning is the process of determining
to point by visual or radar observation of land-
a position from the record of a previously known
marks. These landmarks are either previously
position, course, speed, and time traveled. To be
known or recognized from a chart. It is similar
accurate, you must consider every change of
to taking a trip by automobile where the highway
course and speed during the flight. It does not
is the course taken and the towns are the check
matter whether the pilot or the air mass (wind)
points. This method has obvious limitations if the
through which the aircraft is flying makes the
flight is made over a large body of water or poorly
charted area. Also, if you make the flight using