ASHORE SYSTEMS AND OPERATIONS
Among the more important duties performed in
support of aircraft at naval air activities are those
involving the handling of aviation fuel. Properly exe-
cuted fuel-handling practices are deterrents to person-
nel injury, loss of life, and destruction of Government
property on the ground and in the air. Personnel
(whether military, civil service, or contractor em-
ployed) who are involved with these duties should
possess a thorough knowledge of the equipment they
operate and must follow the procedures associated
with each operation.
Because of the variety of fuel-handling facilities
and the types of fuel-handling equipment in use at air
activities ashore, we cannot include in this manual all
the pertinent information dealing with fueling facili-
ties and equipment. Also, except for preoperational
checks on trucks and pits, the ABF on shore duty
rarely performs maintenance on the equipment. For
this reason, equipment is identified where it would
normally go and its function is given, but the equip-
ment is not broken down into parts. The operating
procedures listed are typical for shore activities. Al-
ways use the approved operating procedures for each
ASHORE FUELING EQUIPMENT
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: Identify the
equipment used in fueling systems ashore. Ex-
plain the function of equipment used in fuel
systems ashore and describe where the equip-
ment is located.
The following paragraphs provide a general de-
scription and the minimum requirements for equip-
ment common to all ashore refueling systems,
including mobile equipment. These requirements ap-
ply to both new and existing equipment. Figure 7-1
illustrates the typical arrangement for ashore systems.
The filter/separator is the primary device used at
shore stations to keep aviation fuels clean and dry.
Filter/separators are designed to remove 98% of all
solids and 100% of all water. Each filter/separator is
outfitted with the following minimum accessories:
Manual water drain valve from the bottom of
the water sump.
Automatic air eliminator valve.
Differential pressure gage with 1-psi gradu-
ations to measure the pressure differential
across the elements.
Pressure relief valve.
Diaphragm-operated control valve on the main
discharge line with a flow-limiting pilot and a
float-operated pilot to close the main valve if
the water level in the sump rises above the set
point. This is commonly called a slug valve.
All manual water drains are connected to a
portable or permanently installed recovery sys-
tem. Pressure relief valves and the air elimina-
tor should also be connected to a recovery
Filter/separators are provided at the following lo-
In receiving lines upstream of all tanks from
which fuel can be pumped directly to aircraft.
In supply piping (downstream) from storage
tanks to aircraft refueler truck fill stands.
On any discharge (downstream) side of transfer
pumps that supply aircraft or refuelers.
On any equipment (including mobile and port-
able) that directly fuels aircraft.
Upstream of the main receiving points for the
bulk storage tanks. Filter/separators will reduce
receipt of water and sediment into bulk storage
tanks and increase the time between tank clean-
ings. The installation of a filter/separator is not
practical at all receiving points. However, some
device for the removal of particulate should be
used, depending on the method of delivery and
flow rates involved.