characteristics and dangers. The better you, as an
ABF, know and understand aviation fuel hazards, the
better you will be at avoiding, or correcting, unsafe
One of the primary sources of ignition is static
electricity. To ensure the safe relaxation of static
charges relevant to fuel operations, all activities must
do the following:
Prohibit the top loading or splash filling of any
fuel trucks or tanks.
Refill filter/separator slowly or monitor vessels
whenever they have been drained.
Keep tanks free of foreign objects, such as small
conductive objects that can be floated by foaming
fuel, thereby becoming an unbonded charge collector.
This does not prohibit suspending thermometers or
samplers in tanks. However, these devices must be
removed prior to any receipt.
Always electrically bond the refueling equipment
to the aircraft or truck into which the fuel is being
Earth (ground) the aircraft and the refueling vehi-
cle whenever refueling operations are conducted on
any surface other than concrete, such as asphalt and
plastic-coated surfaces. Earthing is also required for
all hot-refueling operations and when refueling U.S.
Air Force aircraft.
Check the electrical resistance of pressure nozzles
Bond overwing (gravity) refueling nozzles to the
aircraft, using a separate bonding pigtail before tanks
caps are removed.
Attach bonding cables to aircraft, using plug and
jack method whenever available.
Inspect bonding and grounding cables, clamps,
and plugs daily.
Check the electrical resistance of cables monthly.
Never conduct fuel operations during an electrical
Remove refuelers from aircraft parking areas dur-
ing electrical storms.
Require fuel personnel to wear non-static-produc-
ing clothing, such as cotton.
SOURCES OF IGNITION
To prevent or eliminate other sources of ignition,
activities must ensure the following:
Never allow fuel personnel to wear shoes that
have nails or other metal devices on the soles.
Advise fuel personnel not to carry or wear loose
metal objects, such as knives or keys.
Check the exhaust piping on mobile refuelers
daily to ensure that holes, cracks, or breaks do not
Never permit smoking, spark- or flame-producing
items, open flames, or hotwork within 50 feet of any
Defer all repair work on fueling equipment during
Except approved safety lights for use in hazard-
ous locations, do NOT introduce lights into any com-
partment or space where fuel or flammable vapors
may be present.
Do NOT allow fuel personnel to carry strike
anywhere matches or cigarette lighters.
Be certain that no repair or maintenance work is
being conducted on the aircraft before starting the
refueling or defueling operation.
Be certain that LOX operations are not being
performed and that LOX-handling equipment is not
located within 50 feet of fuel operations.
Be certain that aircraft radar and all unnecessary
radio equipment is switched off before refueling or
defueling is begun.
Do NOT conduct aircraft fuel-handling opera-
tions within 300 feet of ground radar equipment.
Equip all internal combustion engines operated
within 50 feet of fuel-handling operations with spark-
Do not start or stop any engine, regardless of its
configuration, within 50 feet of a fueling or defueling
operation. This prohibition includes aircraft being
serviced and adjacent aircraft, as well as ground sup-
port equipment. The starting or stopping of an engine
within 50 feet of a fueling or defueling operation is
sufficient cause for the operator to immediately shut-
down the fuel pump.