Position the panel or plate on the aircraft before
securing it in place. The spring riveted to the structural
member enters the hollow center of the stud, which is
retained in the plate or panel. Then, when the stud is
turned about one-fourth turn, the curved jaws of the
stud slip over the spring and compress it. The resulting
tension locks the stud in place, thereby securing the
panel or plate.
What are the three most common types of
solid rivets, blind rivets, and rivnuts commonly
used in aircraft construction.
There are hundreds of thousands of rivets in the
airframe of a modern aircraft. This is an indication of
how important rivets are in the construction of aircraft.
A glance at any aircraft will disclose the thousands of
rivets in the outer skin alone. In addition to being used
in the skin, rivets are used in joining spar and rib
sections. They are also used for securing fittings to
various parts of the aircraft, and for fastening bracing
members and other parts together. Rivets that are
satisfactory for one part of the aircraft are often
unsatisfactory for another part.
Two of the major types of rivets used in aircraft
construction are the solid rivet and the blind rivet. The
solid rivet must be driven with a bucking bar. The blind
rivet is installed when a bucking bar cannot be used.
Solid rivets are classified by their head shape, size,
and the material from which they are manufactured.
Rivet head shapes and their identifying code numbers
are shown in figure 5-13. The prefix MS identifies
hardware under the control of the Department of
Defense and that the item conforms to military
standards. The prefix AN identifies specifications that
are developed and issued under joint authority of the
Air Force and the Navy. Solid rivets have five different
head shapes. They are the round head, flat head,
countersunk head, brazier head, and universal head
Round Head Rivets
Round head rivets are used on internal structures
where strength is the major factor and streamlining is
Flat Head Rivets
Flat head rivets, like round head rivets, are used in
the assembly of internal structures where maximum
strength is required. They are used where interference
of nearby members does not permit the use of round
Countersunk Head Rivets
Countersunk head rivets, often referred to as flush
rivets, are used where streamlining is important. On
combat aircraft practically all external surfaces are
flush riveted. Countersunk head rivets are obtainable
with heads having an inclined angle of 78 and 100
degrees. The 100-degree angle rivet is the most
commonly used type.
Brazier Head Rivets
Brazier head rivets offer only slight resistance to
the airflow and are used frequently on external surfaces,
especially on noncombat-type aircraft.
Universal Head Rivets
Universal head rivets are similar to brazier head
rivets. They should be used in place of all other
protruding-head rivets when existing stocks are
There are many places on an aircraft where access
to both sides of a riveted structural part is impossible.
When attaching many nonstructural parts, the full
strength of solid-shank rivets is not necessary and their
use adds extra weight. For use in such places, rivets
have been designed that can be formed from the
outside. They are lighter than solid-shank rivets but are
amply strong. Such rivets are referred to as blind rivets
Figure 5-13.Rivet head shapes and code numbers.