runway by ATC must use that runway. However, consistent with the final authority of the
pilot in command concerning the safe operation of the aircraft as prescribed in CFR
91.3(a), ATC may assign a different runway if requested by the pilot in the interest of
Takeoff, landing, and taxi clearance No person may, at any airport with an operating
control tower, operate an aircraft on a runway or taxiway or take off or land an aircraft
unless an appropriate clearance is received from ATC. A clearance to taxi to the takeoff
runway assigned to the aircraft is not a clearance to cross that assigned takeoff runway,
or to taxi on that runway at any point, but is a clearance to cross other runways that
intersect the taxi route to that assigned takeoff runway. A clearance to taxi to any point
other than an assigned takeoff runway is clearance to cross all runways that intersect
the taxi route to that point.
Class E Airspace
Unless authorized or required by the ATC facility having jurisdiction over the Class E
airspace area, each person operating an aircraft on or in the vicinity of an airport in a
Class E airspace area must comply with the requirements of CFR 91.126.
Departures - Each pilot of an aircraft must comply with any traffic patterns established
for that airport.
Communications with control towers - Unless otherwise authorized or required by ATC,
no person may operate an aircraft to, from, through, or on an airport having an
operational control tower unless two-way radio communications are maintained
between that aircraft and the control tower.
Communications must be established prior to 4 nautical miles from the airport and up to
and including 2,500 feet above ground level (AGL). However, if the aircraft radio fails in
flight, the pilot in command may operate that aircraft and land if weather conditions are
at or above basic VFR weather minimums, visual contact with the tower is maintained,
and a clearance to land is received. If the aircraft radio fails while in flight under IFR, the
pilot must comply with CFR 91.185.
Class G Airspace
General Unless otherwise authorized or required, each person operating an aircraft on
or in the vicinity of an airport in a Class G airspace area must comply with the
requirements of this section.
Direction of turns - When approaching to land at an airport without an operating control
tower in Class G airspace:
1. Each pilot of an airplane must make all turns of that airplane to the left unless the
airport displays approved light signals or visual markings indicating that turns
should be made to the right, in which case the pilot must make all turns to the
2. Each pilot of a helicopter or a powered parachute must avoid the flow of fixed-