side of the same rule may have one edge graduated
in sixty-fourths of an inch and the other edge
graduated in thirty-seconds of an inch, as shown
in view B of figure 10-8.
The carpenters square is a steel tool in the
form of a right angle. One arm is 24 inches long,
and the other is 18 inches long. It is used by the
carpenters to lay out the framework of buildings
and to square off wood materials. The fabrication
and parachute worker uses it for layout work and
The tape measure is a convenient tool. It is
used to measure large objects, yet it is portable
and can be carried in a pocket. The tape measure
is flexible and allows you to measure curved
objects. These measuring devices (ruler, tape
measure, and carpenters square) are used to
achieve accurate and professional results.
The sailmakers palm has a small metal disk
insert set in rawhide and stitched into a leather
glove-type device. It is designed to be worn in the
palm of the hand, and it is used to aid in pushing
a sail needle through the material being sewn or
tacked (fig. 10-9).
The awl is another instrument used as an aid
in sewing heavy material where pushing the sail
or hand sewing needle through the material
becomes difficult. It is a sharp-pointed
instrument, with a handle attached, and is used
for punching holes in a heavy fabric or material
prior to inserting the needle. Never use a hot
needle or iron as a substitute for the awl.
Figure 10-9.Sailmakers palm.
The star punch or leather punch is a very
useful tool for punching holes through material
to be fastened with snap fasteners or speedy rivets.
Looking back through the first two sections
of this chapter, you see that we have discussed
textile materials and tools. This section is also
concerned with a different type of material often
used in the fabric shop. We call it hardware.
Grommets, glove fasteners, and interlocking
fasteners are pieces of hardware you use during
your daily work. You must install pieces of
hardware to covers, bags, and clothing to
strengthen or to secure these items. Not only do
you have to be able to identify this hardware, you
also have to know how to install it properly.
You use grommets whenever it is necessary to
reinforce holes for lacings in covers, bags, panels,
and upholstery. There are two parts to a grommet:
the grommet itself or collar and the washer. The
two types of grommets used are plain and spur
grommets, as shown in figure 10-10.
The plain grommet uses a plain washer,
whereas the spur grommet uses a toothed washer
that bites into the material to form a grip. The
spur grommet, because of its strength, is used
where the pull will be particularly strong; or it may
be used in large covers. Leather is sometimes used
at corners to reinforce the area where grommets
are to be installed. Grommets are made of
aluminum, brass, or chrome-plated brass. They
are available in several sizes (00, 1, 2, 3, 4, etc.);
Figure 10-10.Grommetsp1ain and spur.