material also must be labeled. Stock hazardous material
should be at the minimum quantity required to meet the
operational requirements. The following paragraphs list
some of hazardous items used afloat.
ACID. Unless classified as safe material in the
Naval Ships Technical Manual, chapter 670, store
liquid acid in the acid locker. If the acid locker is not
available, stow acid bottles in the flammable storeroom.
However, a watertight rubber lining must cover the deck
and the lower part of the bulkhead Also, label the space
with ACID BOTTLE STOWAGE, in 3/8-inch letters,
securely attached to the outside of the storeroom door.
Corrosive acids are acute fire hazards. Stow corrosive
acids separately from oxidizing or flammable materials.
Avoid contact of corrosive acids with your skin or eyes.
Personnel handling these acids must wear rubber
gloves, rubber aprons, and goggles for protection.
ALCOHOL. Since most alcohols have a flash
point below 100°F, all alcohol must be stored in
flammable liquid storerooms. Store grain alcohol
(ethanol or ethyl alcohol) in an alcohol locker.
OXIDIZING MATERIAL. The HMIS lists
oxidizing material by Special Material Content Code J
(Juliet). Store all oxidizing material in a dry
compartment away from combustible materials. One of
the oxidizing materials used onboard ships is calcium
hypochlorite. It is a bleaching agent and disinfectant.
Ships use calcium hypochlorite for purification of
potable water, sewage treatment, and biological and
chemical agent decontamination. Calcium hypochlorite
itself is noncombustible. However, it is a strong
oxidizing agent that will generate heat and liberate
chlorine. It can also cause fire when stowed in contact
with paints, grease, oils, detergents, and other
Calcium hypochlorite should be stored in bins or
lockers. The storage space must contain the label
HAZARDOUS MATERIAL-CALCIUM HYPO-
CHLORITE in red letters on a white background.
COMPRESSED GASES. Compressed gas is
any material or mixture in the container that has an
absolute pressure of more than 40 psi (pounds per square
inch) at 70°F. Or, regardless of pressure at 70°F, it may
contain an absolute pressure of more than 104 psi at
130°F. Compressed gas also includes any liquid
flammable material that has a vapor pressure above 40
psi at 100°F.
On ships, compressed gases are stored on the
weather deck unless the ship has specifically designed
spaces below deck for such material. When stored,
compressed gas cylinders must be vertical and secured
with the valve protection caps in place. Compressed gas
cylinders must be located away from other flammable
materials, especially grease and oil. Also, the cylinders
must be as far away as possible from navigation, fire
control, or gun stations. The cylinders must be protected
from the direct rays of the sun or accumulations of snow
You must take precautions when storing com-
pressed gases below decks. You must prevent any
leaking fumes from entering ventilation air intakes
leading to working or living spaces.
Usually, empty cylinders still have some gas
remaining in them; therefore, you must stow and handle
empty cylinders with the same precautions as full
cylinders. You must handle compressed gases,
particularly the flammable and explosive gases, with
You must prevent cylinders from dropping or
forcefully striking against hard surfaces. You must not
allow the tampering of cylinder safety devices. When
not in use, be sure that the valve protection cap is
secure] yin place. If the valve of the cylinder should snap
off, the cylinder can behave like a missile. For example,
a cylinder with 2,200 pounds per square inch (psi)
pressure can travel 2,600 feet in free flight. This is
disastrous when it happens in a confined space. The
following paragraphs describe the safety requirements
you must observe when handling compressed gas
You must prevent cylinders from coming in contact
with tire, sparks, or electrical circuits. Exploding steel
cylinders have the same destructive effect as a bomb.
Do not drag or slide cylinders when moving them.
You must use hand trucks, as prescribed by NavalShips
Technical Manual, chapter 9230. If hand trucks are not
available, tilt the cylinder and roll it on the bottom edge.
During loading or offloading of gas cylinders, you
must secure them to a cradle, pallet, or rack. Never hoist
cylinders with electromagnets, or with hooks or lines
attached to the valve protection caps.
You must prevent the altering or defacing of the
numbers or markings on the cylinders. Do not add
markings to the cylinders without approval from the
engineering officer. Do not issue cylinders if you cannot
identify their contents.
The Naval Ships Technical Manual, chapter 550,
contains detailed information about the stowage,
handling, and use of various types of compressed gases.
Anyone handling gas cylinders must be familiar
with the color coding used on them. The color codes and
markings identify the contents of the cylinders. The
color coding is used
coding consists of
as a hazard warning. The color
primary and secondary color